He later cited exhaustion, saying he had fainted after weeks of intense work, as the country tries to stem the spread of the outbreak that has devastated European neighbor Italy.
"I felt faint from exhaustion and several intense weeks of work," he tweeted. "I am now feeling better. I'm going home now to rest tonight so I can get back to work tomorrow to fight the #corona crisis as best I can."
Vice Prime Minister Hugo de Jonge took over Bruins' duties until a permanent replacement is found.
His first order of business was to expand social distancing measures on Thursday, and place a ban on visiting nursing homes.
"Because I realize that this is a very drastic measure," he said, per NL Times. "If it is your own father or mother, it will of course affect everyone. Still, I think it is necessary. People in nursing homes can be very fragile, so the effects of the virus are very large. And we must protect the most vulnerable."
Like much of the continent, the country's schools, bars and restaurants have all been closed.
The Netherlands has recorded almost 3,000 cases of COVID-19, 106 of which were fatal.